An English-Arabic Translator’s Guide to Election Terminology

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The following are the three basic strategies for coinage in Arabic Baker : 1.

Derivation: according to this process, Arabic derives new terms by analogy based on its derivation system. For example, data is translated as givens , taken from cs-Lc-i give. Loan translations: the meaning of the term is translated literally into Arabic. How to Send Email Attachments Email attachments allow you to send files along with your email messages. An attachment can be any type of file, but the most common ones are text documents and images photos etc.

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Arabic to English translators and interpreters » General fields

Chemical Reactions A reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt and water as the only products. Proficiency in the TL is not sufficient since translators need to know the language of the discipline they are dealing with, as well as its jargon and historical background, so that they can articulate their ideas competently in the TL following the content and the style of the ST.

Scientific translation is sometimes viewed as a communicative service, which offers new information for a new audience; its basic goal is to deliver scientific information that may be used easily, properly and effectively Byrne If certain terminology in the original text requires more elaboration in the TL, the translator must ensure that this extended explanation e.

For this purpose, the scientific translator should be a good researcher to keep up with all new development, since scientific discoveries evolve very rapidly. The first step involves understanding the scientific content of the article so that a conceptual map of the original text is created.

This process involves analysing the text on two levels, lexical and grammatical. Grammatical analysis involves a contrastive analysis of grammatical structures in the SL and TL. English is characterised by a scarcity of connectives, little repetition of keywords, extensive use of passive forms, and the verbs to be and to have. Arabic, on the other hand, uses more connectives, repeats key words more often and favours active structures. Tense and aspect are also problematic in both languages. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme ACE inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers ARBs block different steps of the renin-angiotensin system.

Aliskiren Tekturna directly inhibits renin the first step of the renin-angiotensin system and is approved for treatment of hypertension. Although seemingly attractive, dual therapy with ACE inhibitors and ARBs is associated with elevated risks for acute kidney injury and hyperkalemia.

معلومات عن كتاب Election Terminology A Translator's Guide to Frequently Used Terms and Phrases:

In this meta-analysis of 10 randomized controlled trials involving more than people, risk for hyperkalemia was significantly higher among patients receiving dual 94 Module 4: Scientific Texts therapy with aliskiren plus an ACE inhibitor or an ARB than among patients receiving monotherapy with an ACE inhibitor or an ARB relative risk, 1. SL passive TL structure Arabic has inflections for tense, number and gender. Furthermore, while English has inflection for plural only, Arabic has inflections for singular, dual and plural. This grammatical gender distinction is shown in the inflections of the verbs that follow these nouns.

Atoms and Molecules Most of the Universe consists of matter and energy. Energy is the capacity to do work. Matter has mass and occupies space.

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All matter is composed of basic elements that cannot be broken down to substances with different chemical or physical properties. Elements are substances consisting of one type of atom, for example Carbon atoms make up diamond, and also graphite. Pure 24K gold is composed of only one type of atom, gold atoms. Atoms are the smallest particle into which an element can be divided. The ancient Greek philosophers developed the concept of the atom, although they considered it the fundamental particle that could not be broken down. Since the work of Enrico Fermi and his colleagues, we now know that the atom is divisible, often releasing tremendous energies as in nuclear explosions or in a controlled fashion in thermonuclear power plants.

Subatomic particles were discovered during the s. For our purposes we will concentrate only on three of them, summarized in Table 1. The proton is located in the centre or nucleus of an atom, each atom has at least one proton. Elements differ from each other in the number of protons they have, e. Hydrogen has 1 proton; Helium has 2.

The neutron also is located in the atomic nucleus except in Hydrogen. The neutron has no charge, and a mass of slightly over 1 amu. Some scientists propose the neutron is made up of a proton and electron-like particle. Because they move at speeds near the speed of light the precise location of electrons is hard to pin down. Electrons occupy orbitals or areas where they have a high statistical probability of occurring. The charge on an electron is Its mass is negligible approximately electrons are needed to equal the mass of one proton.

Electron Atom Particle These are not normally translated into Arabic. For example, the following sentence is usually translated as follows: Elements are substances consisting of one type of atom. Then suggest the most appropriate strategies before you provide your translation. Complete the table below. Etiology Sources Coronaviruses CoVs are found in a wide range of animal species, including in cats, dogs, pigs, rabbits, cattle, mice, rats, chickens, pheasants, turkeys, and whales, as well as in humans.

They cause numerous veterinary diseases e. Preliminary data after the outbreak started suggested that animals in the markets of Guangdong province in China may have been the source of human infection.

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A wide range of other coronaviruses in bats has been found, suggesting that bats are the most likely animal reservoir for the SARS outbreak. SARS infection in animals before arrival in the markets was uncommon, and these animals were probably not the original reservoir of the outbreak, although they may have acted as amplifying hosts.

The proximity in which humans and livestock live in rural southern China may have led to the transmission of the vims to humans. Transmission Peritonitis Amplifying Antibodies S. Pathophysiology The lungs and gastrointestinal tract have been demonstrated to be the only major organ systems that support SARS-CoV replication. After establishment of infection, SARS-CoV causes tissue damage by 1 direct lytic effects on host cells and 2 indirect consequences resulting from the host immune response. Autopsies demonstrated changes that were confined mostly to pulmonary tissue, where diffuse alveolar damage was the most prominent feature.

Diffuse alveolar damage is seen along with a multinucleated giant cell with no conspicuous viral inclusions. Multinucleated syncytial giant cells were thought to be characteristic of SARS but were rarely seen. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 ACE-2 , being a negative regulator of the local rennin-angiotensin system, was thought to be a major contributor to the development of this damage.

The other mechanism was thought to be the induction of apoptosis. Immunologically, SARS is characterized by a phase of cytokine storm, with various chemokines and cytokines being elevated. Then choose two problems that were not tackled in the previous exercises, comment on them and provide the most appropriate strategies to follow. Accordingly, mutations in the RNA sequence replication of coronaviruses are relatively common. Such mutations can cause the resulting new virus to be either less or more virulent. This protein, after binding to its receptor - which is thought to be angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 ACE-2 and is expressed in a variety of tissues, including pulmonary, intestinal, and renal - undergoes conformational change and cathepsin L-mediated proteolysis within the endosome.

It instead facilitates the transfer and dissemination within the infected host. Replication of the virus occurs in cytoplasmic compartments surrounded by a double membrane layer.


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Such concealment within cells probably causes a spatial separation of the viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns PAMPs and the cellular cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors PRRs. Ultimately, however, an IFN immune response can occur. There was a high rate of transmission to health care workers HCWs. Genetic analysis showed that the SARS- CoV isolates from Guangzhou had the same origin as those in other countries, with a phylogenetic pathway that matched the spread of SARS to other parts of the world.

In Canada, a significant outbreak occurred in the area around Toronto, Ontario. Most cases have involved persons who lived with or cared for a person with SARS or who had exposure to contaminated secretions from a patient with SARS. Some affected patients may have acquired SARS-CoV infection after their skin, respiratory system, or mucous membranes came into contact with infectious droplets propelled into the air by a coughing or sneezing patient with SARS.

Leaky, backed-up sewage pipes; fans; and a faulty ventilation system were likely responsible for a severe outbreak of SARS in the Amoy Gardens residential complex in Hong Kong. The worldwide number of SARS cases from the original outbreak November through July 31, reached more than persons, including healthcare workers. Of those cases, resulted in death, with a case fatality ratio of 9.

Elevated levels of interferon-inducible protein 10 IP , monokine induced by IFN- gamma MIG , and interleukin 8 IL-8 during the first week, as well as an increase of MIG during the second week, have also been associated with a poor prognosis. A study of SARS survivors found that most of these had significant improvement clinically, radiographically, and in their pulmonary function studies. However, Significant reductions in the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide and in exercise ability 6-min walking distance were also documented at 12 months. Polyneuropathy and myopathy associated with critical illness, avascular necrosis possibly steroid induced , steroid toxicity, and psychosis were some of the other long-term sequel observed in the SARS survivors.

Morbidity and mortality SARS can result in significant illness and medical complications that require hospitalization, intensive care treatment, and mechanical ventilation. Morbidity and mortality rates were observed to be greater in elderly patients. Ill Advanced English-Arabic Translation You are a caregiver.

An English-Arabic Translator’s Guide to Election Terminology An English-Arabic Translator’s Guide to Election Terminology
An English-Arabic Translator’s Guide to Election Terminology An English-Arabic Translator’s Guide to Election Terminology
An English-Arabic Translator’s Guide to Election Terminology An English-Arabic Translator’s Guide to Election Terminology
An English-Arabic Translator’s Guide to Election Terminology An English-Arabic Translator’s Guide to Election Terminology
An English-Arabic Translator’s Guide to Election Terminology An English-Arabic Translator’s Guide to Election Terminology

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